Instructions for using the Harvard system of referencing

The Harvard System of Referencing is one of the most widely used systems of citing using parentheses. Over time some details in it have been changed and an updated version of the system, introduced by Anglia Ruskin University Library in 2010, is used for the “Industrial Management” Journal.

1. Needed information for referencing of:

a/ Books:

  • Names of the author/authors
  • Year of publication
  • Title of the book
  • Issue number, if it is not the first
  • Place of publication
  • Name of the publishing house.

b/ Journals:

  • Names of the author/authors
  • Year of publication
  • Title of the article
  • Title of the journal
  • Page number/numbers of the article in the journal
  • Other information which can be found about the journal, e.g. issue etc.

c/ Electronic sources:

  • Date of accessing the source
  • Electronic address or -mail
  • Type of electronic source: е-mail, discussion forum, WWW site etc.)

2. Types of citing in the text:

a/ Direct citing, which is done in a number of ways:

1/ Direct citing of the name of the author in the text:

- When a reference is made, the family name of the author is given at the end of the sentence and the year of publication in parentheses;

For example: It is required that citing is made in accordance with the rules accepted worldwide. That opinion is supported by Penkova (2007).

- In literal citing with quotation marks in the text, apart from the year, the respective page/pages are written after a comma;

For example: Penkova (2007, p. 5) points out that “certain elements are considered as obligatory in citing”.

2/ Direct citing of more than one authors and publications:

- The names of the authors are written one after the other with the years of the respective publications (in chronological order starting with the earliest publication);
For example: Ivanov (1996) and Petrov (1998) point out that “…”.

    3/ Citing of 2 or 3 authors of one publication:

- The names of the authors are written one after the other, the year publication and then after a comma – the respective page/pages;

For example: McCarthy and Hatcher (1996, pp. 69-70) insist that with presentations “structure must be clear and precise”; or

Some thoughts are best left unsaid” when emotional issues cloud negotiation (Fisher, Ury and Patton, 1991, p. 37).

4/ Citing of more than 3 authors of one publication:

- The family name of the first author is written and then “et al”.
For example: Morris et al. (2000, p. 47) state that “the debate of these particular issues should be left to representative committees”; or
“There “is not an accepted international standard for citing electronic sources” (Petrova et al., 2002, p. 5).

    5/ Citing of several works by one author in the same year:

- They should be differentiated by adding a lower case letter directly, with no space, after the year for each item:

For example: According to Angelova (2008b)…

6/ Citing of an institutional publication:

- It is cited in a similar way but instead of the name of author/authors the name of the institution is written;

7/ Citing of an anonymous author:

- Instead of the family name of the author the title of the publication (encyclopedia, institutional document and others) from which the citing is taken is written together with the year and the page;

For example: The flora and fauna of Britain ‘has been transported to almost every corner of the globe since colonial times’ (Plants and Animals of Britain, 1942, p. 8).

b/ Paraphrasing – it is often used to express, in one’s own words, the views, ideas, etc. of more than one author who have worked in the field. Then they are cited at an appropriate place or at the end of the sentence with the respective family names, year and possibly - page, and are separated by a semi-colon.

For example: Some characteristic features which are used to classify organizational culture are friendliness and solidarity among people, orientation towards internal problems or outer environment, pursuit of stability and flexibility, type of organizational structure and others. (Anthony, Perrewe and Kacmar, 1999; Cole, 2002; Sotirova, 2003).

Electronic sources are cited in the text in the same way as in printed publications except for the pages. After the family name of the author there is the date of publication. If no author is given then the name of the institution which publishes it or the title of the publication as it is when citing an anonymous source.

For example: Updated Guide to the Harvard System of Referencing written by Library staff at Anglia Ruskin University ”is frequently cited as a valuable source on the Internet” (Harvard System of Referencing Guide, 2010).

3. Making a list of the literature used:

It includes only sources which have been cited or paraphrased. The listing of the publications starts at the beginning of the line and is in alphabetical order according to the name of the author. With an anonymous author first comes the title of the publication, which is taken into consideration in the listing.

All sources are arranged and numbered in that way in the list irrespective of their type /a book, a journal, electronic carrier/. The sequence of arranging the information in the general case is as follows:

- family name and initials of the author/authors, followed by a comma,

- year of publication, followed by a full stop,

- title of the publication, written in italics and followed by a full stop,

- issue number , if it is not first, followed by a full stop,

- place of publication with a colon at the end,

- publishing house, followed by a full stop.

 Examples of the most common cases in publications:

1/ a book:

- with one author

Adair, J., 1988. Effective time management: How to save time and spend it wisely. London: Pan Books.

- with two or three authors

McCarthy, P. and Hatcher, C., 1996. Speaking persuasively: Making the most of your presentations. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.

- with more than three authors

Roeder, K. et al., 1967. Nerve cells and insect behavior: A manual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

- second or consecutive edition
Barnes, R., 1995. Successful study for degrees. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.

- one author with several works in the same year
Angelova, Y., 2008a. Opredelyane na tsenata na elektricheskata energiya. Sofia: KING. (In Bulgarian).

Angelova, Y., 2008b. Problemi na liberalizatsiyatana elektroenergiyniya pazar v Balgariya. Pazardzhik: Belloprint. (In Bulgarian).

- with an anonymous or unknown author
Balgarska dzhobna entsiklopediya, 2009. Sofia: Akademichno izdatelstvo „Prof. Marin Drinov”. (In Bulgarian).

The University Encyclopedia, 1985. London: Roydon.

2/ a journal - the difference from the rules applying for a book is that the title of the journal, the issue and the respective pages of the cited publication are given.

For example: Prodanova, R.I., 2004. Edno prilozhenie na prognoznite metodi v sferata na uslugite. Industrialen menidzhmant, 1, pр. 46-50. (In Bulgarian).

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an indepth look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), pp.564-78.

3/ conference paper – in the same way as above.

For example: Mladkova L., 2010. Knowledge market, Proceedings of the VIII International Scientific Conference “Management and Engineering’10”. June 17–19, 2010, Sozopol, Bulgaria, pp. 30-36.

Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

4/ institutional publication – includes the title of the publication, Year, possibly Chapter or Article in the document, place of publication and publisher.
For example: Natsionalna klasifikatsiya na profesiite i dlazhnostite 2011, 2011. Sofia: IK „Trud I pravo”. Zakon za izmenenie i dopalnenie na Kodeksa na truda, 2011. DV br. 18. Sofia: Narodno sabranie. (In Bulgarian).

Higher Education Act 2004. (p.8), London: HMSO.

5/ electronic source – includes: author, institution or source, Year. Title of the document or web-page. Date if possible. Web address at which the source can be found.

For example: NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <> [Accessed 10 October 2009].
University Library, 2010. Harvard System of Referencing Guide. Updated 15 September 2010. Available at: <>
MTSP, 2005. Natsionalna klasifikatsiya na profesiite i dlazhnostite. Available at: <> . (In Bulgarian).

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